By E. Anderson
Drawing on hundreds of thousands of interviews with 15-22 yr outdated directly and homosexual male athletes in either the USA and the uk, this ebook explores how jocks have redefined heterosexuality, and not worry being inspiration homosexual for behaviors that restricted males of the former new release.
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Additional info for 21st Century Jocks: Sporting Men and Contemporary Heterosexuality
Without women’s presence in sport, men’s greater sporting prowess became uncontested proof of their superiority and right to masculine domination. Thus, sport not only reproduced the gendered nature of the social world, but sporting competitions became principal sites where masculine behaviors were learned and reinforced (Hargreaves 2002). Social programs and sporting teams were created to give (mostly white) boys contact with male role models. The Young Men’s Christian Association (YMCA) came to America in 1851, hockey was invented in 1885, basketball was invented in 1891; the first Rose Bowl was played Birth of the Jock 31 in 1902; and the first World Series was played in 1903.
In doing so, they fail to examine the more important socio-negative variables, like the volitional and unintentional damage inflicted upon those who do not fit the athletic mold, or the emotional and physical damage that sport often brings to the body or brain when used as a weapon in search of temporary glory (all readers should Google “chronic traumatic encephalopathy”). Nor do they examine the way sport is used to shape youth into a working-class ethic of hard work, sacrifice, and stoicism that benefits corporations, 36 Part I: 20th Century Jocks religion, and the military (Anderson 2010a).
Sport as a Masculine Cure-All to the Feminization of Men It was in this atmosphere that sport became associated with the political project to reverse the feminizing and homosexualizing trends of boys growing up without father figures. Sports, and those who coached them, were charged with shaping boys into heterosexual, masculine men. Accordingly, a rapid rise and expansion of organized sport was utilized as a homosocial institution principally aimed to counter men’s fears of feminism and homosexuality.
21st Century Jocks: Sporting Men and Contemporary Heterosexuality by E. Anderson