By W. Woodruff
By investigating the main adjustments of worldwide historical past prior to now years, this e-book offers the required worldwide viewpoint to appreciate the geopolitical and geoeconomic adjustments dealing with us this day. now we have reached a vital transitional level in international historical past during which the realm will not be formed by way of the only picture of western modernism, yet more and more through clone of all cultures and civilizations. the necessity to take an international view - which this booklet presents - has turn into acute.
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Additional resources for A Concise History of the Modern World: 1500 to the Present A Guide to World Affairs
Unlike Wycliffe, he accepted the Church’s doctrine on transubstantiation – which did not save him from being condemned as a heretic and burned at the stake. Savonarola’s aim was to reform the Church of its inequities under the Borgia Pope Alexander VI. Europe: 1500–1914 25 Condemned as a heretic, he suffered the same fate as Huss. 1466–1536) added his voice to those criticizing the Church, but never suggested the overthrow of its authority. By the time the German Augustinian friar Martin Luther3 nailed his 95 theses to the door of the ducal chapel at Wittenberg (31 October 1517), it was too late for the Church to stem the tide of doubt and distrust.
Its report in 1537 led eventually to the establishment of the Council of Trent. The council, which met intermittently between 1545 and 1563, was the Church’s response to the attacks made upon it during the Reformation. The council rejected compromise with the Protestants and upheld and strengthened the authority of the pope (only in the mid-twentieth century would the idea of a reunified Christendom be reborn). The basic tenets of Catholic faith were redefined: salvation required not only faith but also good works; the source of doctrine was not only scripture but also ‘unwritten traditions’, some of which had been 28 A Concise History of the Modern World received by the apostles from Christ himself; the seven sacraments were reaffirmed with special emphasis on transubstantiation; the usefulness of indulgences, the veneration of relics and the cult of the Virgin were approved.
While the religious wars of 1618–48 engulfed Europe, the Dutch fought to establish their rule on the major sea lanes of the world. It was the Dutch who first challenged the right of other powers to claim exclusive sovereignty over the oceans. Hugo Grotius, who declared the doctrine of the freedom of the seas – that every nation has equal rights on the high seas – was a Dutchman. Dutch intrusions into the eastern seas as well as into the Gulf of Mexico, had put the older doctrine of mare clausum to the test.
A Concise History of the Modern World: 1500 to the Present A Guide to World Affairs by W. Woodruff